Project JB; Advanced IP Version 6 Research and Educational Network


Masaki MINAMI, Kengo NAGAHASHI, Akira KATO, Youki KADOBAYASHI, Masafumi OE, Hiroshi ESAKI and Jun MURAI


DV, Digital Video, IPv6, IP version 6, multicast, QoS, Diff-Serve

Table of Contents


As the Internet moves forward into the next century, the Internet is going to serve as an information infrastructure for everyone from the information infrastructure only for scientists or professionals.
The Project JB is a joint high-performance nation-wide network research project in Japan. This project consists of a couple of Network Computing Research Project, such as WIDE Project, ITRC, Cyber Kansai Project and so on. They collaborate and co-operate each other. Furthermore, it has collaborated with international networking research groups, such as Internet2 Project, NGI Project and APAN project.
The initial technological targets are IP version 6, quality of service control (e.g., diffserv), realtime high speed stream multicast, reliable multicast and new applications (e.g., School on the Internet). The test-bed is going to integrate all of these functions and protocol stacks into an unified platform based on the PC-UNIX based advanced network stack provided by KAME project.
  1. IP version 6
    KAME project and TAHI project have developed high quality reference codes (KAME code) for various UNIX system and system evaluation tools. All the technologies described below have been unified into the KAME code and operates on the JB project network.
  2. Quality of Service Control (QoS)
    We have integrates the Diff-Serve (Differentiated Service) functions into the ALTQ packet scheduling module. Also, in order to manage the QoS policies across the Internet, we develop the Bandwidth Broker (B.B.) using the COPS.
  3. High Speed Stream Multicast
    We have developed the PIM-SM multicast routing protocol for KAME code, to deploy Digital Video (DV) class high speed stream multicast over JB project network.
  4. Reliable Multicast
    The integration of FEC (Forward Error Correction) and packet retransmission has been researched and developed for a large scale reliable multicast.
  5. New Applications
    School on the Internet is a applications using the advanced technologies listed above. JB project has developed and operated the realtime and interactive international remote lecture system among University of Wisconsin and JB project network across the pacific ocean.
Practical network operation with the integration of the above functions and protocol stacks will disclose some new issues and requirements for the next generation Internet infrastructure. The deployed test-bed internetworks with international research networks, such 6REN and Q-Bone.

1: Introduction

Internet technology provides global, ubiquitous and universal connectivity for all computers and everyone connecting through various datalink platforms.
Since connectivity is the Internet's own reward, the Internet has been growing numerically and geographically at a more than exponential rate.
The core technology for the Internet is IP (Internet Protocol) and TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). A network in the Internet contains computers that are interconnected using IP. As well as interconnecting computers within a network using IP, IP further interconnects these networks. This is reason why it is said that the Internet is a network of networks. Reliable data transmission is achieved by the end-to-end TCP control mechanism between source and destination hosts. Therefore, it is said that Internet with TCP/IP is inherently a distributed system.
As the Internet moves forward into the next century, the Internet transits to an information infrastructure for everyone from the information infrastructure only for scientists or professionals. This means that the next generation Internet has to achieve the following features. Now, what are the technological requirements and challenges for the next generation Internet. It is "scalability". Scalability has various aspects from various quantitative and qualitative view points.
The initial technological target of the "JB" project is IP version 6 (IPv6), quality of service control, multicast and new applications.


IPv6 provides sufficiently larger address space (128 bits) for the next generation Internet. IPv6 also provides various new functions compared with the legacy of IPv4 (IP version 4). For example, IPv6 enables autoconfigurations for end hosts to accommodate everyone into the Internet.

Quality of service control

Each person and each application may require different communication quality levels. Differentiated Service (Diff-Serv), Integrated Service (Int-Serv) and RSVP are the key architecture models and protocol stacks which provide various communication qualities for each particular packet flow over the Internet. The quality of service control must be scalable, regarding the heterogeneity of the required service class and of the condition of the network.


The unicast based multicast emulation, that is the general solution in the existing Internet environment, may not be numerically scalable to need to multicast capability.
Multicast has two different technological challenges. One is for realtime high speed stream data transmission, e.g., digital video (DV) data multicasting. The other is for error free data delivery for large number of receivers, i.e., so-called as reliable multicast.

New applications

Using the new technologies described above, new applications should be researched and developed. For example, in the "JB" project, the School on the Internet (SOI) applications using the above technologies will be deployed.

We, the "JB" project, will integrate the above mentioned functions and protocol stacks into a unified platform based on the KAME stack Also, we operates these above mentioned functions over a newly deployed research test-bed, called the "JB" project test-bed.
The "JB" project is a joint research project to explore next generation Internet technologies. The project is organized by several network computing projects, such as the WIDE project, ITRC project and Cyber Kansai Project.
Therefore, we build a new nation-wide high performance research test-bed, that is jointly operated by the participating research projects and organizations. The deployed test-bed also internetworks with international research networks, such as 6REN (IPv6 Research and Educational Network) and Q-Bone (end-to-end Quality of service backBone) Network operation with the integration of these functions and protocol stacks described above will disclose some of the new issues and of requirements for the next generation Internet infrastructure.
Section "Project overview" gives brief description for project overview, test-bed topology and its architecture. Section "IPv6", "Multicast", "QoS" and "New application" give an background, roadmap and work items of each sub-project. Section "Conclusion" gives brief conclusion.

2: Project overview: design and architecture

The goals of the "JB" project are development new technologies to construct a nation-wide next generation Internet infrastructure and to point out the problems that become apparent through its operation. Furthermore, it has collaborated with international networking research groups, such as Internet2 Project, NGI Project and APAN project in IPv6, Reliable Multicasting, QoS area and new applications.
Initially, the "JB" project focuses on the following three themes, IPv6, Multicasting and Quality of Service, as three independent sub-projects that collaborate with each other. As an early phase objective of the "JB" project, those sub-projects aim to establish a test-bed network that has integrated these three themes. Then, research and development of new applications will begin after the test-bed is available.
In order to build a high-speed and high-performance test-bed, "JB" has been designed adopting high-speed lines such as ATM and SDH leased line as a datalink.
The rest of this section, will describe the following:
  1. Formation of this project
  2. Network topology and technologies

Formation of this project

As stated above, the "JB" project has several sub-projects, such as IPv6, QoS, Multicast and new application, and these are able to increase or decrease depending on the situation. In other words, these sub-projects are able to integrate and divide. As this behavior can be likened to piling up various layers, we designated that each sub-project be called "plane" in the "JB" project.
The figure fig 1("multiple-planes unite into one plane") shows that these "planes" will in the end be unified into one single "plane". This is exactly what the next generation Internet infrastructure is all about.

Multiple planes unite into one plane

In a technological viewpoint, it shows a typical model of the process that the Internet grows to the Infrastructure for "Universal Service". Especially, things that related with all planes are important, such as a fusion between old technologies and new technologies, a network management that covers each planes.

Network topology and technologies

There are at least 10 NOCs (Network Operation Center), such as KDD Otemachi, University of Tokyo, Keio SFC(Shonan Fujisawa Campus), Osaka University, Kyoto University, NAIST(Nara Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), JAIST(Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), CRL(Communication Research Lab., MPT), Kurashiki and Kyushu University, and at least 20 leaf-sites have connected to the test-bed network.
The figure fig2("Japan Backbone: nation-wide backbone") shows the initial topology of the "JB" test-bed network. Most of connectivity has been provided by ATM links(OC-3 to OC-48), though SDH links have also been used in parts.

"Japan Backbone": nation-wide backbone

The KAME stack based PC-UNIX boxes have been installed as both hosts and routers to all "JB" sites.

3: IPv6, the "IP version 6" plane

The goal of "IPv6" plane is building a IPv6 network environment for next generation Internet infrastructure.


The IPv6 (IP version 6) is a core protocol of the next generation Internet. It has a 128bit address space that is enough to cover all worldwide networks. IPv6 core stacks have already been in development for four years. During these years, a lot of network equipment vendors and research and development organizations have developed IPv6 stacks on various platforms. As a result, most of those stacks are available as products or public domain.
Likewise, three years have passed since the significant test bed for IPv6 stack evolution, development and deployment, known as the 6bone, has started operation. As a result of the 6bone, we have developed important technologies such as dynamic routing, source address selection and multihoming as well as having acquired operational tips and experience.
However, if those technologies are not deployed generally throughout the world, IPv6 can not be called "Internet Protocol for Next Generation"in its true sense. Therefore, "IPv6 plane" is going to focus on a establishment of a network environment using these technologies as commodity operation.


Through the constructing and operating of a test-bed network for IPv6, that is the next generation core protocol for the Internet, on "JB", the "IPv6 plane" is going to tackle the following technical issues: Furthermore, these issues are also applicable to the deployment of IPv6 in the worldwide Internet. Especially with the IPv4-IPv6 transition issues, through actively providing an IPv4 and IPv6 coexisting environment for all "JB" sites, we will positively find out and solve new problems, and provide feed back to the IETF ngtrans working group.
Finally, we believe that the current 6bone-jp should be replaced with "JB" as its successor, in order to change it from a simple test-bed to a IPv6 nation-wide, general and commodity infrastructure. This is because for the most part, it consists of complex and ad hoc IPv6 over IPv4 tunnels.
At present, we are going to install KAME stacks, as both of router and end-host, "Toshiba CSR", that has been improved based on KAME stack, and "Hitachi GR" as routers to all "JB" sites.

Work items

Starting from May 1999, we have focused on whether these three individual research planes, IPv6, Multicasting and Quality of Service were able to work with each other on the same network. In other words, IPv6 sub-project had to provide IPv6 connectivity in order that the other planes can work on IPv6.
All "JB" sites have already had IPv6 capablities each other by July 1999. Currently, we can develop a new application on IPv6 platform at all of the "JB" site.
For example, DVTS is one of the most interest application which has developed on IPv6. It is able to provide a function to transfer "Digtal Video stream" over IPv4/IPv6 with/without IPsec/Mutilcast. We often use it as Demonstration of "JB" project or remote lecture between United States and Japan.
We have cooperated with operation experiments for commercial IPv6 products by allowing them deployment as soon as they are ready for use. Our initial experiences for experiment were for the "Toshiba CSR" and "Hitachi GR" which are able to operate with high-speed lines such as OC-3 and OC-12.
Several OSPF version 3 implementations are in progress. They have been tested starting from 4Q of 1999. At present, there are two candidates for developing platform, one is "gated", the other is "zebra". As both of them are available in the public domain, we will also make available results of development, such as codes and documents.
As the Internet will have to go through the same transition in near future, the transition of the main IPv6 test-bed of Japan from 6bone-jp to "JB" is a most interesting event, not only for us, but also for IPv6 researchers all over the world. Actually, this transition is going on with at present, and we get several interesting experiences. Therefore, we have to feed back these experiences to the IETF community.

4: "Multicast", the realtime and/or reliable multicast plane

The goal of "Multicast" plane is establishment of reliable technologies at a worldwide scale. For example, to provide multicast communication capabilities for high-quality multimedia streaming such as video (cf. "Digital Video") and audio(cf. "Internet Telephony"), and for guarantee of reliability.


The most suitable situation to make use of the striking features of multicast such as "reduction of redundant traffic" and "similarity to existing broadcasting media" is high band width communication within a widely distributed area. Therefore, development of IP multicast technology on super high-speed networks is necessary for the deployment of multicast communication in general.
The MBone, which is a worldwide test-bed for IP multicasting, has long supported the development of a lot of IP multicasting technologies such as "DVMRP" which is a multicast routing protocol based on "distance vector" algorithms, "RTP" which is a multimedia transport protocol for realtime communication and some reliable multicast protocols for reliable communication.
In this way, the MBone has grown into worldwide test-bed and has been connected with hosts of various performance and nature. However, there is an important problem.
The MBone consists of many tunnels laid out on an Internet based on "best effort". Because of the overhead needed to maintain these tunnels the Mbone is not suited for functions as a high band width multimedia communication test-bed.
Therefore, the "JB" has built a live test-bed for multicasting to make use of "JB" test-bed, and experiment on multicast communication with the next generation Internet environment in mind.
Furthermore, another important study concerning IP multicasting technology is the development and deployment of a scalable multicast routing protocol such as "PIM"(Protocol Independent Multicasting) and to find out and solve the problems discovered during this process.
In other words, it is for these reasons that IP multicasting has not seen worldwide deployment despite its superior technological value.


On the "JB", IPv6 is ready to operate from the beginning as stated at section "IPv6". We assumes that it is the core protocol for development and operation.
When considering scalability, we hypothesize several different size scales for the Internet and develop and deploy several appropriate multicast routing protocols for each accordingly.
Practical reliable multicast protocols are also going to be designed and implemented by making use of QoS guarantee technology And as application of these, technology for multi-point delivering will be developed.
Finally, the "Multicast" is going to focus on the establishment of high speed datalinks, IP technology, Multicast routing and applications taken as a whole on the next generation Internet Infrastructure. In other words, the technologies that have been developed by "JB" will be adoptable on the next generation Internet immediately.

Work items

At the beginning, we are going to focus on establishing a multicast capable test-bed of a scale of about 20 sites on "JB", using PIM/SM as the multicast routing protocol.
Also, we are going to focus on a establishment of technologies for high band width multimedia transport such as Digital Video(DV) streaming.
Starting from April 1999, we had focused on a simple implementation of PIM/DM multicast routing protocol daemon. It had been available by June 1999, and then we deployed it to all "JB" sites. From July 1999, we has began to develop PIM/SM daemons and continue to experiment through the test-bed. Currently, we use PIM/SM as primary multicast routing protocol.
November 1999, we had succeeded "Digital Video" multicast streaming over IPv6 from Kurashiki to several JB NOC/leaf site for WIDE Project meeting. It provided reasonable quality to discuss and did not occur any fatal problem at all.
We will review and re-schedule our plan at March 2000, and then continue to tackle any remaining or new issues.

5: QoS,"the Quality of Service plane"

The goal of "QoS" plane is building a quality control capable network for next generation Internet infrastructure.


There is a growing demand to multiplex voice, video and data into a single infrastructure, without sacrificing scalability of the Internet. The IETF's differentiated services (diffserv) working group has been trying to solve the problem and standardize protocols for the differentiated services mechanism. In the diffserv framework, interpretation of the IP Type-of-Service field has been redefined so that various queueing mechanisms and packet-drop mechanisms can be deployed at routers.
However, the standardization of an IP-based QoS framework does not tell us how best to classify packets and prioritize them within the given traffic mix of voice, video and data.
While a lot of work has been done in the area of QoS, very little work focuses on flow aggregation and their probabilistic QoS-guarantees. Little is known about the probabilistic QoS-guarantee on aggregation of flows; there is a large possibility that network engineers must fill the gaps between application requirements and the underlying mechanisms, such as traffic class, drop preference, queueing mechanism and so on.
The opaque nature of the diffserv framework leaves a good number of design alternatives for network engineers. While the standard can be directly adaptable to enterprising networks demanding assured forwarding of voice traffic or expedited forwarding of business transactions, the scale and multiplexing nature of the Internet makes it difficult to apply the standard to the backbones of the Internet. For example, an ISP must be able to handle such questions as if we prioritize a specific customer, what kind of quality will the other customers receive?
If diffserv is going to be widely available across the Internet, we must have at least one working service model for the differentiated services.


"JB" is going to bridge the gaps between application practitioners and protocol designers by providing a live QoS infrastructure. Our focus is on both software implementation and network deployment, since it enables fast feedback to software/protocol development process.
Our goal is as follows: 1) provide open-source implementations for a QoS infrastructure, 2) accumulate working knowledge of QoS-enabled network design, 3) develop algorithms as well as implementations for intra-domain QoS-routing, admission control, bandwidth allocation across multiple administrative domains, and flow aggregation at domain boundary, and 4) provide live QoS-enabled infrastructures to researchers in various science fields.

Work items

Starting from April 1999, we has focused on intra-domain QoS frameworks. Our work spans across routing, forwarding, QoS signalling, and admission control. The "Bandwidth Broker" is name of one of the framework for QoS has developed by a couple of organization, such as "Internet2". After a one-year focus on intra-domain QoS frameworks, we will be able to move on to implementation and deployment of inter-domain QoS frameworks, starting from April 2000.
We are going to develop a service model incrementally through actual deployment. Our initial applications are Internet telephony and Digital Video transmission, as well as live IPv6 data traffic.
Several people are studying the effects of flow aggregation at DS boundary routers.
COPS (Common Open Policy Service) implementations are in progress. They has been tested starting from May 1999. Interactions between different types of clients and servers, as well as service location mechanism, will be tested here.
DSCP marking at DS boundary routers is another issue. While it has been easy to identify packets based on TCP ports, it becomes impossible with IPsec encapsulated packets. Interaction between COPS, IPv6 flow-label and DSCP will be studied here.

6: New application, "Internet Application for Next Generation plane"

The goal of "New application" plane is implementation and experiment of application system/software for Next Generation Internet. There are two themes are in progress. One is "DVTS" which consists of two programs, "Digtal Video Sender" and "Digital Video Receiver".
The other is School of Internet, which is learning and education program based on realtime and/or archived remote lecture system.


The "DVTS" is system which provide Digital Video transmission ability using normal PC and DV VTR/Camera. DV streaming needs 25Mbps bandwidth to transmit it as full rate. It is reasonable application to evaluate high-speed/high-performance network environment for next generation infrastructure.
Since DVTS is well-design and often used, it can work on both IPv4 and IPv6, and also can work with both IPSec and Multicast. So, we are able to apply it various situations.


The SOI (School on the Internet) project, Working Group in WIDE Project was started in September 1997, considering the change of role in the Internet. Our goal is "to provide higher education and opportunity for all the people in the world who have the will to study using Internet based technologies, eliminating traditional limitations."
In October of the same year, we have started WIDE University "School of Internet" as a testbed of our new concept. ( Since then, we have been doing researches such as education based on the Internet, development of the university environment, and research about the education system of the new age.
"School of Internet" is the studying environment to learn about the Internet on the Internet. It is difficult for just one educational organization to gather enough teachers that can teach about this whole new subject and also provide sufficient educational environment for people who want to learn about the Internet systematically. The establishment of "School of Internet" will be an important guideline to set up this new educational field by coordination of different universities.
The activities of "School of Internet" are all on the Internet. Lectures and speeches provided on the Internet by demand are all about Internet and computers, which are given by the professors of the WIDE Project. 1,415 people, including actual university students and adults, entered this university. The average number of access to the lecture page per month goes up to 200,000.

7: Conclusion

The project "JB" is an advanced network research and educational project in Japan. It has focused on "high speed", "high band width", "well-designed" and "reliable" technologies for the next generation Internet infrastructure. It especially focuses on "IPv6", "Multicast", "QoS" and "New application" as a "plane" for this project.
It is therefore called "Japan Backbone" which is one of the things which "JB" stands for.
Although, we described the background, roadmap and work items at each section of "plane", the "JB" project's work is still in progress. However it will provide robust, high-quality reliable and high-speed service for everyone in near future.

Masaki Minami